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Dr. Amr Abdel Monem M.D.
Professor
Faculty of Medicine Cairo University
Prof. of anesthesia and clinical nutrition
Member of NAASO & ASRA

Following the great results of weight and fat reductions after dealing with professor amr abdelmonem through the internet clinic for more than 10 years……it was proved that the internet clinic is like the land clinic and may be better at sometimes

Through the internet clinic of Professor Amr Abdelmonem you can follow a nutritional course... Read more

Obesity and Science
Are you obese?
Biological issues
Metabolic syndrome
Sleep and obesity
Obesity and fatty liver
Obesity and diseases of civilization
Spot reduction is mentioned to be condemned
Obesity management
The golden rule is weight
    maintenance
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 :: Biological issues

In the last 15 years, research has generated many important discoveries, including those of adipose tissue-derived hormones such as leptin and adiponectin, those of the gastrointestinal tract hormones such as ghrelin, and the determination of numerous central and peripheral circuitries involved in energy balance regulation.

The neurobiology of obesity represents a rapidly growing research field that has proved to be essential in the understanding of the etiology of obesity. The brain plays a major role in energy balance regulation as it exerts controls on both food intake and energy expenditure.

Three brain entities are particularly important in these controls, namely the hypothalamus, the dorsal vagal complex, and the reward system, which are inter-related structures capable of controlling energy intake as well as thermogenesis. Brain systems controlling energy intake and energy expenditure have been divided into anabolic and catabolic systems, each system comprising different types of neurons capable of controlling energy intake as well as energy expenditure.

These neurons release various molecules that include neuropeptide Y, agouti-related peptide, melanin-concentrating hormone, the endocannabinoids, α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript, corticotropin-releasing factor, thyrotropin-releasing hormone, and serotonin.

These neurosystems are modulated by short- and long-term signals that report on the status of the energy stores and energy fluxes. Whereas leptin and insulin are recognized as the main long-term signals, the gastrointestinal hormones ghrelin, peptide tyrosine-tyrosine, cholecystokinin, and glucagon-like peptide 1 are known as short-term signals that inform about the nutritional status. The way an organism regulates energy balance is in large part a function of its genes and the environment. (Obesity 2006; 14:187S-188S).

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